biology of dogs diseases and epidemiology in pets

dogs diseases
biology of dogs diseases and epidemiology in pets

biology of dogs diseases and epidemiology in pets

vaccinated against canine distemper virus, parvovirus, adenovirus type 2, parainfluenza virus, Leptospira serovars canicola and icterohemorrhagiae, and bordetella bronchiseptica. Rabies virus vaccination may also be included. Purpose-bred dogs are also usually treated prophylactically for helminths and ectoparasites, intestinal coccidia, and bacterial ear infections (R. Scipioni and J. Ball, personal communication, 1999).

Random-source dogs are not bred specifically for use in research. They may be dogs bred for another purpose (e.g., hunting), retired racing dogs, or stray dogs collected at pounds or shelters. The health status of these dogs can be the same quality as purpose-bred dogs, or it can be an unknown entity. Randomsource dogs that have been treated and vaccinated in preparation for use in research are termed conditioned dogs. These
dogs are then suitable for long-term studies or terminal preparations that require unperturbed physiologic parameters. Conditioned dogs are often tested for heartworm antigen because of
the implications that infestations can have on cardiovascular status and surgical risk. 

Nonconditioned random-source dogs are useful only in a limited number of research studies, such as nonsurvival surgical training preparations.

options for procurement of dogs for biomedical research typically include purchase from a U.S. department of agriculture designated class A or class B licensed dealer or directly from a municipal pound. The requirements for USDA licensure are detailed in the code of Federal regulations (CFR), Title 9, chapter 1 (1-1-92 edition), subchapter a, animal Welfare, 1.1,
definitions, and 2.1, Requirements and application. briefly, class a licensees are breeders who raise all animals on their premises from a closed colony (suppliers of purpose-bred dogs are typically class a dealers). Class B licensees purchase the dogs from other individuals (including unadopted animals from municipal pounds) and then resell them to research facilities.

there are additional regulations that apply to Class B dealers (such as holding periods and recordkeeping documentation) because of the public concern that stolen pets could enter biomedical research facilities in this manner. Regulations regarding the sale of pound dogs to research facilities or Class B dealers vary from state to state and include some bans on this practice.

The best resource for identification of possible vendors is the last issue of each year, the (Buyer's Guide) lists sources for both purpose-bred and random-source dogs and denotes such features as pathogen-free status, documentation of health status, and availability of specific breeds and timed pregnant females. Some suppliers also have separate advertisements within that issue of the journal.

- regulations pertaining specifically to the care of dogs used in research are found in Subpart A, Specifications for the Humane handling, care, treatment, and transportation of dogs and cats

Particular attention should be paid to Section 3.6c (Primary Enclosures- Additional Requirements for Dogs), because the space required for housing, dogs are calculated using the length of the dog rather than the body weight (which is used for other species and also for dogs, according to National Research Council (NRC) guidelines). Section 3.8 (Exercise for Dogs) describes the requirements that dealers, exhibitors, and facilities must follow in order to provide dogs with sufficient exercise.
The Institute of Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) has (Seventh edition, 1996). The "Guide" is the primary document used by institutional animal research programs to develop and design their programs, as well as by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC International) and other animal care evaluation groups to facilitate site visits and inspections. The ILAR committee on dogs has also written "Dogs: Laboratory Animal
Management " (1994). This publication describes "features of

use of dogs as models of human diseases" and includes "an interpretive summary of the Animal Welfare Regulations and the
requirements of the Public Health Service Policy on Humane to use these publications to obtain further information on care

and husbandry of dogs in the biomedical research setting. 

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