Coccidiosis in dogs - Diagnosis and Treatment and prevention

Coccidiosis in dogs - Diagnosis and Treatment and prevention;Coccidiosis in dogs Diagnosis Epidemiology Control Cystoisospora canis; Cystoisospora ohioensis-like; Cystoisospora burrowsi; Cystoisospora neorivolta; Life history;
Coccidiosis in dogs - Diagnosis and Treatment and prevention

- Diagnosis
Cystoisospora infection in dogs can be diagnosed by identification of the unsporulated
. The oocysts of the other three other species of Cystoisospora namely Cohioensis, C. burrowsi, and C. not clinically important. Rarely, epithelial casts may be found in feces; schizonts, merozoites, and partially formed oocysts can be found in smears made in normal saline (not water).
oocysts measuring 10-14 µm should be considered Hammondia/Toxoplasma/Neospora and specific PCR assays are needed for definitive identification (Schares et al., 2005). Unlike another coccidia, Sarcocystis species oocysts/sporocysts are excreted sporulated. They would not be seen in dogs who were not fed meat or in puppies.

Molecular data using the 18S rRNA and ITS 1 genes indicates close phylogenetic similarity
between dog and cat Cystoisospora species

7. Treatment and prevention
Several medicines including sulfonamides, sulfonamides with antifolates, amprolium,
spiramycin, diclazuril, toltrazuril, toltrazuril sulfone (ponazuril) and combinations of these been used to treat coccidiosis in dogs (Duberman, 1960; Rao, 1968; Dürr, 1976; Brunuthaler, 1977;
Kirkpatrick and Dubey, 1987; Aning and Ologun, 1992; Daugsches et al., 2000; Lloyd and Smith,
2001; Reinemeyer et al., 2007;; Dubey et al., 2009; Lappin, 2010; Dubey and Lappin, 2012);

dosages were summarized by Dubey and Greene (2012). Currently, toltrazuril and ponazuril are
most commonly used (Table 5); medication with these compounds reduced or stopped oocyst

excretion both in naturally exposed and experimentally infected dogs. In the trial performed by Supportive therapy is needed to prevent dehydration.
Dogs should be kept indoors and not fed raw meat. General hygienic measures should be
practiced in kennels to minimize dissemination of oocysts. Although general disinfectants that do not harm humans are ineffective killing coccidian oocysts, they remove many other contaminants.
Treatment of equipment with hot water (> 70 0C) is most effective killing coccidian unsporulated
oocysts. Attempts should be made to minimize stress during transport of puppies.

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