dogs shelter policy In euthanasia animal welfare

dogs Shelters
dogs Shelter 

dogs shelter policy In euthanasia animal welfare

Stray dogs may be found in most countries within the world, making moral and hygienical problems. animal shelters are built to keep stray animals off the streets and thereby improve public health. although countries have many similarities in dealing with these issues, there may also be considerable differences. Here, we describe dogs’ characteristics and management policies at four different shelters; 2 set in North America (USA), one in Asia (Israel) and one in Europe (Italy). 
This comparison was supposed to spot that policies semiconductor diode to higher animal welfare.

 Information collected included sex, age, breed, intake type and outcome for the dogs in all four shelters, most dogs were male and the largest groups were those of adult animals. Mongrels/mixed 35 breeds were the most numerous ‘breed’ in three of the four shelters.


The proportion of animals returned to their owners was higher in Israel than in the USA, and, notably, the Israeli and Italian shelters were “no kill” shelters, so the percentage of euthanasia was much higher in the two American shelters, where euthanasia was permitted.


This research highlighted some differences in the management styles of the four shelters. differences may be due to the dog characteristics at the shelters and, in part, to different legislation across the countries regarding the care of homeless companion animals. free-roaming dogs are a common problem in many countries and controlling a stray animal the population is a complex issue (Voslarva and Passatino, 2012).

legislation regarding animal control varies in different countries. This pattern may reflect cultural differences in perceptions of canine welfare or attitudes towards dogs in each country. because companion animals live in such close proximity to humans, the welfare of dogs cannot be considered separately from the human social and cultural contexts in which they live In 2007, the European Union enacted global welfare standards for the control of the dog population.
 no European legislation has specific rules for dealing with stray animals, so each European country is free to develop individual approaches to regulate populations (voslarva and Passatino, 2012).

italy, for instance, has signed the European convention for the protection of pet animals and many of its precepts have been recognized in law no. 281 of 14th  August 1991 for the protection of pets and the prevention of animal abandonment. This law promotes dog registration by compulsory identification of dogs using microchips. it also states that stray dogs, if not reunited with the owner, must be neutered, identified by temperament and kept for adoption. the law also states assistance for free-roaming dogs and cats and follows a “no kill” policy for these species 
voslarva and Passantino, 2012).

earlier regulations had condoned euthanasia of animals 3 days after they were found on the streets and placed in a shelter. Law no.281/1991 prohibits killing stray dogs unless they are “seriously or incurably ill or proven to be dangerous”. therefore, shelter dogs, if not reunited with the owner, have to be neutered/spayed, identified and kept for adoption in a public long-term shelter. Some Italian regions have a capture, neuter, and release system through the figure of "block dogs"; these are free-roaming dogs that have been collected, microchipped, sterilized, and vaccinated by the local veterinary services (LVS), then released back to the territory under the responsibility of the local municipality comparably, in the united states, policies regarding the licensing and registration of companion animals are decided at state or local level. there is no national database for animal registry and there is no requirement to microchip dogs (Lord et al., 2009). 

in Florida, shelters must hold an unlicensed animal for a minimum amount of time and must make reasonable efforts to find the owner. after this time, the animal can be adopted out or euthanized. Florida requires sterilization or a promise to sterilize in order to adopt an animal from a shelter (AVMA state legislative and regulatory department). 

this requires vaccination of all dogs aged four months or more against rabies in Israel, as in the united states, there is no specific country-wide legislation dealing with the issue of free-roaming animals. the dog regulation law of 2002 requires every dog above the age of three months to be licensed, microchipped and vaccinated annually against rabies. the law also covers importing dogs and keeping of dangerous dogs (dog regulation Law, 2002) (Table 1).

the exact number of free-roaming dogs worldwide is unknown, but evidence suggests that this number is increasing in many countries (voslarva and passatino, 2012). in developing countries stray animals are rapidly caught and put in animal shelters, creating an overpopulation problem in these shelters (Dalla villa et al., 2010; voslarva and passatino, 2012). some strategies to reduce shelter overpopulation problem include increasing kennel capacity or promoting dogs’ adoptions, decreasing abandonment, limiting the reproduction rate of owned dogs, and creating a capture, neuter, and release system.

 Animals entering shelters usually meet one of three fates: they are reclaimed, adopted, or euthanized (Lepper et al., 2002). In countries with a “no kill” policy (as Italy, for example), there is the fourth fate for shelter dogs: to remain in the shelter until death by natural causes. The decision to euthanize an animal at a shelter depends on various factors, including the health of the individual animal and the presence of behavioral issues (Salman et al., 2010).

 Furthermore, many shelters face the harsh reality of limited space and funds, which can lead to the

 need to eliminate animals in order to make room for new ones; the high occupancy in these shelters located in countries with  “kill” policy may, therefore, lead to higher euthanasia rates  (Kass et al., 2010). We sought to describe the dogs’ characteristics and policies of four shelters located in different continents (North  America, Asia, and Europ e), in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of shelters’ policies and procedures. This included how differences in legislation could play out within shelters located in different countries. 

Learning about how various shelters across multiple countries operate can allow for the identification of helpful and effective policies.    Other shelters elsewhere may benefit from this shared information when formulating their own policies. 

Materials and methods :
Four animal shelters, similar in size and all located in urban areas, were used to develop the research.  One  shelter  was  situated  in  Italy  (public),  two  were  in  Florida  (one  public,  one  private)  
and one was located in Israel (public).  
The  Italian shelter was a public institution whose purpose was holding stray dogs as part of public health control; after a hold period of up to 60  days, if not returned to their owners,  dogs were transferred to a private facility where they were made available for adoption.  In Florida, the private shelter was funded purely by donations, with no government assistance,  whilst the public shelter was both funded and run by the e-government.  The Israeli shelter was public and government-funded operation. The American and Israeli  shelters  considered  in  this  study  were  long-term shelters; they had facilities in which, after a stray hold period and the original owner could not be found,  dogs were made available for adoption.  The duration of the holding period was  30 days in the Israeli shelter and six days in the Florida shelters. In all the shelters,  a  clinical examination and health tests would be performed on the dogs during this holding period. 

Data-collection took place over three years (between  2011 and 2013)  for all the shelters considered in this study.  
With the consent of the local authorities,  we consulted the computerized r egistries of the four
shelters in order to collect data related to dogs’ characteristics  (sex, age, and breed) and shelter policies (intake type and outcome type of the dogs hosted). Because of varying policies and restrictions on euthanasia in Italy and  Israel,  data on this was considered only for the two American shelters. 
Statistical analyses data was entered ed into an excel file and descriptive statistical analysis  was performed  using  IBM SPSS  satistics  23 (SPSS  Inc., chicago,  USA).  frequency distribution of collected variables was
calculated and compared among shelters.  

Results :
The number of dogs that entered the Florida public shelter in the  3 years considered was  17,645.  
The number of animals was similar between the Italian shelter and in the Florida private shelter  
(respectively, 4,157  and 4,731).  The Israeli shelter had 555 dogs

In all the shelters considered in this study,  sex distribution was similar.  The percentage of females was 46% in the Italian  (N=1,910)  and Florida shelters (N=2,180  in the private,  N=8,103  in the public), and 42% for the Israeli shelter  (N=235). 

Age was not recorded by the Israeli shelter.  
Of the remaining 3  shelters, the Italian shelter had the highest percentage of puppies less than 3 months old (20%,  N=848),  while for the two Florida shelters this value was lower  (15%, N=723 in the private; 7%,  N=1,285 in the public).  Young  dogs (3-10  months of age) comprised 19%  (N=802)  of  the  population  in  the  Italian  shelter  and  about 17% in the two Florida shelters (N=809 in the private,  N=2,646  in the public). The number of adult dogs between  11  months-2  years and  3-7  years was about 24%  both in the  Florida private shelter  (N=1101 for dogs between 11  months-2  years, N=1097  for 3-7  years) and in the Italian shelter (N= 997  for dogs between 11  months-2  years,  N=970  for  3-7  years).  In the Florida public shelter,  the percentage of dogs between  11  months-2  years  (35%, N=6,175) was higher than dogs of  3-7 years (25%, N=4,534).  Dogs older than  7 years were about  13%  (N=540) in the Italian shelter and 17%  (N=3,005) in the Florida public shelter, while a higher percentage  (20%, N=1001) was found in the Florida private shelter.
   

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