feeding and growth disorders of the puppy
|feeding and growth disorders of the puppy|
in practice, monitoring, regular weighing of the puppy, assessment of its condition index, the individualization of its rationing quantitatively and qualitatively throughout its growth will contribute to better prevention of these various risks more, is it better? ("don't let it is missing..."). Is rapid growth ideal? ("he is handsome for his age...").
should a puppy be "well in flesh"? Is it necessary to supplement a puppy's diet, especially by minerals? ("it's good for his skeleton...").
his daily ration should be given as a meal weighed and timed?
for example, here are some of the questions or preconceived ideas that come up regularly in daily exercise. if historically, nutritional diseases of the growing puppy (only post-weaning growth will be discussed here) were characterized by the deficiency (s), it is generally all differently today... Starting from simple prevention of deficiencies towards the zootechnical performance and the health and well-being, the perception of need and therefore nutrition of the puppy have also evolved...1 "more is better? »
some nutritional reminders there is a dose-response relationship in nutrition. In this "optimum" area of contribution, the objective may reflect different realities (feeding for survival, for minimum health or optimal or for performance etc.) and module so the width of this tolerance zone...it is also important to distinguish between them need which is an individual data and the recommendation which is a collective approach:
if the gross requirement corresponds to the necessary contribution to cover the net requirement (taking into account an account of the actual assimilation coefficient), the recommendation, on the other hand, represents the value indicative of the amount of nutrient required to meet the needs of all animals of a population, then generally expressed in relative value (% dry matter (dm) org/mega calorie of metabolizable energy (g/Mcal EM).
2. "Quickly done, well done? » puppy growth:
some zootechnical data the growth curves of puppies are different depending on the format of the breed to which they belong and of which several can be defined groups: small, medium, large and giant in particular by the variability of the growth peak; the latter being defined as the inflection point of the growth curve, i.e. the point maximum daily average gain.
The early birth of a puppy is a function of the adult format of his breed: a small breed puppy is born more "advanced" in his growth than a large breed puppy.
in addition, the different tissues (bone, muscle, tissue adipose) of the puppy also has a differential growth, explaining by the same that the pathological/nutritional risk differs from it also according to the format.
3. Dietary level and balance
3.1 Food level
energy is the heart of rationing. in the energy "bowl" must be found every essential nutrient.
- Which energy level to choose?
the diversity of races and needs requires taking into account the individual status short one customization of the nutritional approach. we can define the growing energy requirement (BEC) as the product of the energy requirement (BE) the "basic" and various corrective factors (k1, k2, k3, etc.): racial, behavioral, physiological... even the way of life, the climatic environment or physical activity.
various formulas for calculating the basic behave
have been proposed, among which we can mention:
- the NRC formula 2006(3): BE (in kcal EM) =
130.P0,75 (P: the weight of the dog in kg) ;
- Kronfeld, in 1991, who had proposed the formula BE = 156.P0,67 considered by some as "plus" adapted to large dogs.
it is therefore important to remember that the energy requirement, as a function of metabolic weight, is, therefore, less than proportional to the weight of the animal. in practice, the growing energy demand can, therefore, be calculated/approached for the individual by the formula BEC = k1.k2.k3.130.P0,75. the corrective factors and in particular the factor physiological growth physiological k3 were subjected to different studies: there are some different estimation methods[NRC 1985 and 2006, Blanchard et al. 1998, Grandjean and Paragon.
Let's take an example. either a female puppy of a type.
3-month-old Labrador weighing 10 kg, in body condition normal (neither fat nor lean: refer to well-known condition index silhouettes the body, or at first approach: the ribs are easily felt under the skin without seeing them).
its breed format allows you to estimate its weight adult between 25 and 40 kg. This puppy weighs currently less than 40% of his adult weight. it is possible to propose to estimate your CLB at 1184 kcal EM = 0.9 (race predisposed to obesity) x 0.9 (calm puppy) x 2 (< 40% of adult weight) x 130 x 100,75.
it is then very easy to calculate the food does to distribute to him: if I have chosen a growth food for this 3700 kcal EM/kg puppy, for example, he so you'll have to bring it to him daily.
Q = 1184/3700 = 320 g.
Risks associated with excessive energy intake or excessive growth rate have been highlighted by various studies including Dämmrich K. et al. 1991, This included the following evidence of less resistance intrinsic growth of bone tissue epiphyseal in large breed puppies by compared to those of small breeds. In these puppies of large breed, overnutrition leads in particular to a high growth rate, an increase of muscle mass and weight obesity), as well as mechanical constraints excessive, impairing growth and the skeletal and increasing remodeling, in particular, the frequency of osteoarticular injuries.
on the other hand, a moderate growth rate (it is often proposed to aim for 75% of the maximum growth rate that would be achieved by ad libitum consumption) would reduce the frequency and severity of increasing osteoarticular disorders. repeated exercises or "supported" games between puppies would increase also the risk of growth disorders and in particular "osteochondroses". in practice, regular clinical follow-up including weighing (weekly or bi-monthly), the appreciation of the body condition index (ICC), the establishment and monitoring of a growth will make it possible to adapt the ration to the evolution of the puppy's weight and to avoid including any overweight.
with regard to the food level in the growing puppy, the major risk as well as excess (obesity in small breeds and disorders bone in large breeds): "more" is certainly not synonymous with better...
3.2. Food balance
3.2.1. Growth and proteins:
- quantitatively proteins are essential for a good expression of growth potential and in particular the requirements of the puppy's lean tissue namely muscle and bone. their need is proportional to the weight of the animal (need in proteins (ing) = 4.8.P.k3[NRC 1974]) and not to its metabolic weight as for energy.
Given the variability of the concentration the energy of the ration or DER (density the energy of the ration in kcal EM/kg of feed as such or MS), it is appropriate to reason no in relation to the absolute percentage of protein in the food but preferably in terms of provide-caloric ratio (RPC) which is defined as such as the number of grams of protein per mega calorie (1000 kcal) of food EM.
Let's take an example. Let's say two foods puppy food: food with 30% protein and a DER = 4000 kcal EM/kg gross and a food B with 28% protein and a DER = 3500 kcal ME/kg gross. if the puppy's CLB is, in this example, to 2000 kcal, its daily ration (from 2000 kcal EM) provides this puppy with: with food A: 150 g of proteins (2000/4 x 0.3). A's CPP is 300/4 = 75. With food B, the puppy receives 160 g of protein (2000/3.5 x 0.28). B's CPP is 280/3,5 = 80. For the same amount of energy ingested, food B, whose absolute value rate in % of the protein in food is, however, less than that of a nevertheless provides more protein to the puppy.
which protein level to choose?
among various studies, the one in Kornfeld, in 1989 on beagle puppies, has "defined" for this breed an area optimal intake between 75 and 125 g of proteins by McCall . an RPC of 75 to
125; however, in these trials, it should be noted that the growth was certainly lower, but there was still for lower values.nap et al, on the other hand, studied on 7-week-old danish puppies (during a period of 18 weeks) the influence on the growth of the intake of different protein levels, all other things being equal, without however demonstrate discriminatory consequences on the skeletal development or the appearance of growth disorders.
in practice, the growing CPP will always be preferentially chosen greater than 70. the puppy's format will influence his need: CPP will be strengthened in large-format puppies. from even if we can also propose a differentiation according to the growth stage.
- qualitatively all essential amino acids (AAI)
must be present in sufficient quantity (the notion of limiting factor), in balance with each other. he
will agree to provide a majority of proteins of animal origin. biological value, digestibility, nitrogen supplementation, quality of raw materials and technological treatments food will also be considered because influencing, in particular, protein efficiency. with regard to proteins, which are growing, the major risk seems to be that of deficiency.
3.2.2. Growth and minerals:
minerals include major elements such as calcium, phosphorus, potassium, potassium sodium but also all trace elements. the main subject of controversy or ideas certainly concerns calcium (Ca). an essential element of bone, its contribution to absolute value (%) premium over Ca/P ratio of which the impact seems more incidental: the Ca/P ratio seems to be indiscriminate if it is higher to 1 while it seems indicative of risk in the otherwise.
it should also be noted that among the very young
puppy (before 4 to 5 months for giant breeds), calcium absorption is poorly regulated: the more the ration is rich in calcium, the more its absorption is important explaining the sensitivity of race giants with excess contributions at the beginning of growth. Lauten et al, in 2002, also showed that the influence of mineral intake on growth was much more important before the age of 6 months in puppies only after...
The consequences of a chronic excess of Ca
(met mainly nowadays during uncontrolled additions) are established hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, delay of bone maturation, bone remodeling, and bone remodeling maturation of the cartilage, alteration of the enchondral ossification, leading to a stop of the growth, osteochondrosis, etc.
Which calcium level to remember?
these and other studies have made it possible in their time to define "limits": for a 3950 kcal food
EM/kg, the deficiency was estimated to be below 0.61%. of this, the excess above 2.70%.
Currently, an intake of 2 to 3.75 g of calcium/ 1000 kcal EM (i.e. for a 4000 kcal food) EM/kg, a Ca level of 0.8 to 1.5%) is now considered as a means of ensuring optimal bone growth of the puppy.
calcium recommendations ranging from 1% MS to
the food (NB: FEDIAF reference food at 4000 kcal EM/kg MS) at the beginning of growth at 0.8% MS at the end of growth (with maxima respectively by 1.6% and 1.8%). in practice, depending on the puppy's format and the stage of its growth, a differentiated practical recommendation can be proposed. in addition, provide additional or corrective measure calcium without justification or on a complete food for puppies already containing enough of them is contraindicated. It is only necessary to check, if necessary, that the requirements of the dogs of large format are well respected.
Conversely, the calculated mineral complementation of the household, the ration is necessary in order to avoid any deficiency (especially in relation to phosphorus, the Ca/P is usually less than 1 in this type of ration).
The same would apply to the distribution of an unsuitable compound feed but the latter remains uncommon and in this case, why not change the food rather than complementing it?
The major and growing risk to the calcium is, therefore, the one of excess.
- Trace elements (EO):
Zinc, copper, iron, iodine, manganese ore selenium (Zn, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Se) or others are of course involved in the growth but with no clear relationship to bone disorders.
Some ratios must be respected, by example the Ca/Zn ratio (about 100 with a maximum of 200), the Zn/Curation.
3.2.3. Growth and other items:
- Lipids and essential fatty acids (EFAs) are involved in the palatability of the maintenance of body status (mass fat), inflammatory and immune functions (AGE).
from a quantitative point of view, a fat intake (fat intake) of about 10 to 20% of the growing MS. from a qualitative point of view, contributions in EGM are necessary. the recommendations are for
the omega 6 series (ω6, linoleic acid) of 1.3 g /100 gMS (max 6.5) and for the Omega 3 series (ω3: alpha-linolenic acid) of 0.08 g/100 g MS.
- additional recommendations:
concern the intake of other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): arachidonic acid (ω6 present especially in meat) and eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) from the ω3 series (EPA + DHA recommendation: 0.05 g/100 g MS) which is found in particular in certain cold sea fish oils:
this contribution would promote the "learning" of the puppies in particular but different studies seem to be necessary to refine the recommendation.
the need for fiber remains minimal (to ensure transit) in puppies with the digestive tract can't stand their excess.
starches are also not always well tolerated in puppies, even though they are often very (sometimes too much?) present in dry puppy food. we could propose that they should not represent more than 30-40 % of the MS of the food at weaning or in immediate post-weaning. Their excessive substitution by lipids can nevertheless, lead to a rapid increase in the DER and thus the need for precise rationing to avoid overweight.
- Vitamin D:
Fundament to calcium metabolism and bone growth, its deficiency is rare: little likely with industrial foods, it remains possible especially with some of the lean household rations supplemented with minerals but not vitamin D.
its supplementation is essential: various recommendations propose a contribution of approximately 500 IU/kg of MS in the food (maximum 3200) or at a ratio of 50 IU/g Ca.
it is also necessary to prevent any excess, whose harmful effects are often irreversible particularly on growth have been shown (hypertrophic osteopathy, etc.).
- Other vitamins:
Vitamin A, also essential for the growth must be present at a ratio of Vit A/Vit D of about 10, which would approach the recommendation to 5000 IU/kg MS of the food (maximum 400,000 IU/kg of MS) or at a ratio of 500 IU/g Ca. The excesses (especially in case of excessive liver distribution or very regular cod liver oil by example) lead in particular to serious bone disorders, often irreversible.
Vitamin C conditions the quality of collagen
but no link to the bone pathology, particularly through its synthesis endogenous.
4. Hygiene and food rhythm:
food hygiene must be strengthened in the puppy: special attention will be paid to food safety and quality. Safety, due in particular to the digestive immaturity of the puppy, risk control, especially bacterial risk control then taking all its importance and quality by the choice of highly digestible raw materials (greater than 86%), thus limiting digestive congestion and helping to prevent diarrhea and undernutrition. the dietary rhythm is still the subject of some controversies. Limited self-service and time and quantity rationing are available each with its own particularities.
- Rationing at will or self-service:
has several advantages: less effort for the holder; limitation of competition between puppies, noise pollution before the time of the as well as the risk of undernourishment of the dominated puppies. It also optimizes transit and digestibility through the multiplication of meals but still has limitations reserved for dry food with a real risk of waste and a higher hygienic risk.
However, the main risk is that of the energy over-consumption, especially if the food is very palatable (in particular because of its high-fat content) or in case of competition (dominant puppies) leading to the overweight, obesity and in particular, the risks associated with energy over-consumption in growth already mentioned above. in practice, this leads to discouraging or contraindicating free-choice rationing, in particular in large breed puppies, as long as the latter did not exceed 80% of its adult weight.
- Time rationing (meals from 5, 10 to 20 minutes) and a limited quantity is revealed particularly indicated in particular for puppies of large breeds. From 4 to 3 meals (in immediate post-weaning) then 3 then 2 meals as and when required as growth continues, this distribution method allows precise control of the quantities ingested, a better follow-up and also contributes to the education of the puppy(s). this method of rationing can nevertheless reduce consumption and growth rate but without affecting the format of the animal.
during the puppy's growth, the risks nutritional/pathological are dominated by risks of excess: overnutrition and speed of excessive growth, mineral complementation or inadequate or anarchic vitamin. the imbalances, especially protein/energy, energy/mineral or between minerals must be and special attention will be given to the also contributed, in particular, to the contribution of age, the hygiene, and distribution of the food.
in practice, the follow-up, the regular weighing of the puppy, the appreciation of its condition index
body, the individualization of its rationing quantitatively and qualitatively throughout its growth will contribute to better prevention of these different risks.